Saturday, March 14, 2020
Deplete Deplete Deplete By Maeve Maddox A reader questions the following use of depleting: The following headline appeared in Jamaicas leading newspaper today: My Savings are depleting. What am I doing wrong? The reader suggests changing Ã¢â¬Å"My savings are depletingÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"My savings are being depleted.Ã¢â¬ Like the reader, I thought the headline sounded wrong. Ã¢â¬Å"Savings are being depletedÃ¢â¬ sounds more idiomatic to my ear than Ã¢â¬Å"savings are depleting,Ã¢â¬ but I would have changed deplete to a different verb entirely: Ã¢â¬Å"My savings are diminishingÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"My savings are running out.Ã¢â¬ Deplete is from the Latin verb deplere. The de- is a negative prefix added to the verb plere, Ã¢â¬Å"to fill.Ã¢â¬ Deplere is Ã¢â¬Å"to bring down or undo the fullness of, to empty out.Ã¢â¬ It can also mean, Ã¢â¬Å"to let blood.Ã¢â¬ The intransitive use of deplete in the sense of Ã¢â¬Å"running outÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"becoming exhaustedÃ¢â¬ appears frequently in environmental contexts with subject words like supplies and resources: GroundwaterÃ supplies are depletingÃ at rapid rates around the world. More water is being taken out than put back in by natural replenishment (recharge), and supplies are depletingÃ as a result. The worldsÃ resources are depletingÃ because of a population that is out of control.Ã Although frequent in officialese, this intransitive use sounds odd to me. More idiomatic is to follow deplete with an object, as in these examples: My husbandsÃ lack of employment isÃ depleting ourÃ lifes savings. That section [of a law] limits the production and consumption of a set of chemicals known toÃ depleteÃ the stratospheric ozone. CharterÃ schoolsÃ severelyÃ depleteÃ the resourcesÃ availableÃ to the existing public schools. The following examples would be improved by substituting diminishing or running out for depleting: This [dog] is currently in Chicago with a trainer getting evaluated and learning some more manners but that time is depleting and she is needing a home not the shelter to go back to. I foundÃ my patience depletingÃ by the minute.Ã My health is failing andÃ my friends are depleting. Perhaps some writers or speakers choose deplete in an attempt to avoid a clichÃ ©, but sometimes a clichÃ © is less distracting than the unfamiliar use of a word. For example, time is usually said to Ã¢â¬Å"run out.Ã¢â¬ Patience Ã¢â¬Å"wears thin.Ã¢â¬ As one grows old, Ã¢â¬Å"friends pass away.Ã¢â¬ Sometimes deplete is the wrong choice entirely, as in this comment on a site about dental care: It seems my gums areÃ depleting. Deplete connotes an emptying out of an exhaustible quantity. Gums recede, but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t deplete. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Arrive To vs. Arrive At50 Types of Propaganda13 Theatrical Terms in Popular Usage
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
The Price by Arthur Miller - Essay Example MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s "The Price" is one of the most entertaining and engaging plays adapted since 1968. Although it was one of MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s lesser-known works, it is worthy to have a space in center stage. The play deals with the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s old wounds and confrontations of consequences of decisions made in the past. It also depicted how people place blame on others when their lives turn off the course. Garry HynesÃ¢â¬â¢ direction of The Price did not deviate from the original script written by Miller. Her choice of well-seasoned actors for the characters is well acclaimed. Her cast includes Sam Robards, John Bedford Lloyd, Kate Burton and Alan Mandell. Sam Robards played the character of Victor Franz who grew up with envy and antagonism towards his brother Walter. He was able to portray VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s character very well. His actions were well calculated and with good energy such that in the part where he hit a brick wall that he built by himself. He attacked the character of Victor with resentment in a manner that the audience can really see and feel. He carried the night and became the heart of The Price. John Bedford Lloyd played the character of a successful, wealthy doctor and brother of Victor, Walter Franz. He was very mysterious in character such that the audience cannot clearly point it out if his intentions were selfless or manipulative. He made sure he does prematurel y expose the complications of WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s character. He was able to bring out the character in timing rightly. Kate Burton, who played VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s wife Esther, moved the character back and forth from being a caring wife and a condescending drinking wife who wants to leave Victor. She was constantly pushing his husband to succeed and stop embarrassing her. Alan Mandell flawlessly portrayed the lovable character of an eighty-nine-year-old appraiser of antique and furniture named Gregory Solomon.Ã
Monday, February 10, 2020
History the world - Essay Example These practices ranged from dialect to the mode of dressing where the men used to wear kikoi whereas women cotton lesos or buibuis, which covered their bodies even their head (Laska 63). Primarily, this characterized the mode of dressing commonly preferred by Arabs and Indian women, which is evident at the coast at the present (Luis). Besides, the mingling of Arabs, Persians, Indians and later Portuguese, this led to the emergence of a unique language (Kiswahili), which is particularly rampant in the Eastern Africa. Since, it was the sole language used by the then traders and facilitated better understanding in their midst (Laska 63). Indian Ocean Exchange also led to the rise of diverse societal classes where the richest merchants ranked at the top (Luis). These merchants controlled the trade whereas the slaves assumed lowest rank in the society. Settlement of Arabs at the African coast influenced coastal dwellers to adopt Islamic religion where to the present Islamic has dominated the region. Swahili culture has also given birth to an additional ethnic group besides those inhabited the east African coastal region; mainly associated with Arabian origin commonly known Waswahili (Laska
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man Essay I found the novel Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man very difficult to read at first, and could make very little sense of it. After doing some background research I have some to understand some of the motives of Joyce, from which it seems that the difficulty was not due to any shortcoming on my part, because I know that that even the most sympathetic critics have faced the same difficulties. Joyce does not intend to offer a conventional narrative. Indeed his motive is to deconstruct convention. The protagonist of the novel is described as relinquishing all forms of convention, in his effort to forge for himself a new existence in the capacity of a true artist. But Joyce does not want to offer this theme in the conventional mode either. Not only the substance, but the means and the language must also be suffused by the same theme. In its effort not to depend on any cultural norms, it employs the method of Ã¢â¬Å"stream of consciousnessÃ¢â¬ . This is the technique where raw consciousness of thought is seen as the basis for truth, and it is meant that these thought patterns be transposed directly onto the page. It is not to effect realism, as might be thought at first hand. Realism is art is a very conscious and calculating mode. The underlying philosophy is better described as existentialism. It recalls the existential philosopher Jean Paul SartreÃ¢â¬â¢s epithet Ã¢â¬Å"existence precedes essenceÃ¢â¬ (22). The existentialists aim to understand pure existence, which is yet without essence, or form. It describes exactly the passages in the Portrait which employ the stream of consciousness method. From this point of view I found that a second reading was much easier, only because I was more aware of the motivations of the writer. Another mode which comes to mind is modernism. T. S. Eliot is said to be the instigator of modernism with his 1922 poem Ã¢â¬Å"The WastelandÃ¢â¬ . This poem presents us with fragments from the literary cultural tradition of the West, but in a haphazard way, without any seeming coherence, as proclaimed in the poem itself, Ã¢â¬Å"These fragments I have shored against my ruinsÃ¢â¬ (Eliot 69). Eliot himself admitted that he wrote the poem as a reaction to catastrophe of the Great War, and tried to convey its impact on the Western psyche in general. He believed that conventional art forms had become meaningless in Ã¢â¬Å"the immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary historyÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Sigg 182). The modernist genre that sprung from this poem can be said to be characterized by futility, and the search for transcendental meaning. Despite various points of similarity is it wrong classify Joyce as a modernist. Not only does the Portrait appears well before the publication of Ã¢â¬Å"The WastelandÃ¢â¬ , it is also composed well before the onset of the Great War, and therefore cannot have been motivated in exactly the same way. Neither is it fragmentary and incoherent in the way EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s poem is. It is framed by autobiography, and therefore possesses overall coherence. EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s is a despairing cry of futility. The protagonist of Joyce also comes across the futility of all conventional norms, but in the end the novel is not characterized merely by despair. The protagonist discovering himself as an artist represents hope in the end. The novel describes the several stages by which it protagonist Stephen Dedalus discovers himself as an artist. In the process he takes refuge in the conventional identities provided by society in the various stages of his growing up. But Stephen is meant for greatness, and the conventional identities are only refuges for mediocrity, and this is what he discovers time and time again. The transiton from one stage to the next is marked by epiphanies Ã¢â¬â sudden bouts of realization that transform the inner self. Apart from the many minor epiphanies that accompany the growing young man, there are two major such occasions. The first is his discovery of conventional faith. The second occurs when he comes to realize that the Church is a restricting influence, and that he must escape if he is to express himself as an artist. It occurs when he must make a choice between training to be a Catholic priest, or to enter the secular domain of university. He opts for the second choice. It is a major decision, but does not yet entail that he is free to become an artist. University opens up to him a diverse array of ideologies. Stephen comes to realize that none of the ideas that academia has to offer are able to address his inner longing towards creativity. His goal, as he expresses at the very end of the novel, is to Ã¢â¬Å"to forge in the smithy of [his] soul the uncreated conscience of [his] raceÃ¢â¬ (276). His final realization is that the conventional mode of Irish existence is lacking in conscience. And as an artist he has understood his role as to make up for this fundamental lack. It is a role of heroic proportions, and which only the artist is able to undertake. So the creativity which Stephen intends in not mere self-expression, it is towards creating a conscience for his race. There are many occasions while he is growing up in Dublin when he comes to realize that there is something fundamentally lacking in what society has to offer him. In school it appears as if the appreciation of his peers is the highest goal, and he is in awe of the bullies of the classroom who command attention. On one occasion he is dealt with a caning from a teacher which he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really deserve. He classmates challenge him to take action, and to report the teacher to the headmaster. Up to this point he seems unable to stand up for himself, yet he takes on the challenge of his peers to go up to the headmasterÃ¢â¬â¢s room all alone, and puts his case forthrightly. To his peers he is instant heroes, and they hoist him up in the air together. The striking aspect of this incident is that the glory does not register with Stephen. Even while he is being hoisted, he wants to escape their grip, and when the cheers have died down he feels himself to be an outsider just as before. On the occasion when he is first allowed to attend Christmas dinner with the adults, he observes a vicious argument taking place with politics and religion mixed in. It centers on the Catholic ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s demonizing of Charles Stuart Parnell, who had led the movement Irish independence from the British. ParnellÃ¢â¬â¢s fortunes reversed when it was found out that he was involved in an affair with a married women, which was considered sacrilege in the strictly Catholic society that Ireland was. In the argument StephenÃ¢â¬â¢s aunt is on the side of religious authority, while StephensÃ¢â¬â¢s father and the outsider Mr. Casey argue for politics. However little Stephen understands of this argument, if gives him a foretaste of corruption in high places. But more than this he comes to realize shallowness and brittleness of family life that can be unsettled by cheap religious and political talk. It marks the beginning of StephenÃ¢â¬â¢s moving away from family and tradition. He comes to realize later on that his father is totally unconnected to modern life, and merely engages in nostalgia, drunkenness and superficiality. Stephen renouncing of his family is the first step towards the rejection of convention as a whole. As be becomes more alienated from his family he starts to visit prostitutes, and in general gives himself up to a life of secret sin, even though he is wracked by guilt inside. Another moment of epiphany takes place when he is overcome by a sermon delivered by the college rector. In the meantime he had become strangely drawn towards the Virgin Mary, and when the rector delivers fiery and graphic accounts of hellfire and damnation, Stephen is genuinely terrified from the depth of his soul. None of the other college students are effected at all, and here his outsider status impinges on him once more. The upshot is that he surrenders himself to the austere religious existence, so much so that when the time comes for him to leave college he is nominated for a scholarship for priesthood. By this time Stephen has come to realize that conventional religion does not answer his quest for inner harmony, and so he decides to turn down the offer, and to enter university instead. Shortly after he experiences another moment of epiphany on the beach, when he observes a young lady wading in the water, and he is overcome by a sense of natural beauty. He realized that his true quest is for aesthetic beauty, and that he must carry it on Ã¢â¬Å"among the snares of the worldÃ¢â¬ (Joyce 175). He has not yet realized himself as an artist, and at university he is accosted by the secular ideologies that go up to make convention. In his discussion with his friends he tries to emphasize the importance of leaving all forms of convention behind, but they are far too immersed in the established mode to take his point. He is close to Cranly, to whose sympathetic ear he divulges his artistic longings. Cranly warns him that he is destined for loneliness, but this does not deter Stephen. In this phase he gradually becomes aware that his true identity is contained in his latter name Ã¢â¬ËDedalusÃ¢â¬â¢, and not his first Ã¢â¬ËStephenÃ¢â¬â¢ (linked to the first Christian martyr). Dedalus is the mythical Ã¢â¬Ëgreat artificerÃ¢â¬â¢ who uses his art to escape from confinement by King Minos. The myth says that he learnt to fly, and he allowed his son Icarus to fly first, who became too venturesome and flew close to the sun, which it melted his waxed wings and he fell to his death. Joyce is comparing the previous existence of Stephen to Icarus, and his tenure with religiosity is compared to IcarusÃ¢â¬â¢ foolhardy ascent. The person who has survived is now compared to Dedalus. He sees in the name a Ã¢â¬Å"symbol of the artist forging anew in his workshop out of the sluggish matter of the earth a new soaring impalpable imperishable beingÃ¢â¬ (Joyce 163). There are two striking points that emerge from this novel. First there is the innovative use of language regarding the Ã¢â¬Å"stream of consciousnessÃ¢â¬ technique. Writers who followed in the footsteps of Joyce enthused in this new technique, which reflected so well the fragmentary character of modern existence, and its emphasis on existence above outmoded forms. Virginia Woolf says, Ã¢â¬Å"Let us record the atoms as they fall upon the mind in the order in which they fall, let us trace the pattern, however disconnected and incoherent in appearance, which each sight or incident scores upon the consciousnessÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Zwerdling 14). Other critics stress the symbolism, which occurs at many levels and suffused throughout the novel. Apart from the Dedalus connection, Tindall discovers identification with Christ on the one hand, and with Lucifer on the other (Stephen is made to utter LuciferÃ¢â¬â¢s words Ã¢â¬Å"I will not serveÃ¢â¬ ) (10). But such analyses must not allow us to lose sight of the original theme, which is that of nonconformity to convention. In fact, Joyce message chimes with that of Ralph Waldo Emerson: Ã¢â¬Å"Whoso would be a man, must be a nonconformistÃ¢â¬ (21). Emerson was voicing the ethos of the modern age, whereas Joyce is presenting it as the sublimation of artistic endeavor. In conclusion, though difficult to read, JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s Portrait is a novel worth making the effort for. Through his novel literary techniques he is trying to redefine literature so that it becomes relevant to the modern age characterized by fragmentation and alienation. Apart from the strained techniques, the novel is also worthy for its rich symbolism, which exists on many planes, and for the significant allusions to literature and culture. It is not only an autobiographical and Ã¢â¬Ëcoming of ageÃ¢â¬â¢ novel, but it also makes a noble attempt to diagnose and correct the fundamental malaise of the modern age.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
"The term Machiavellian refers to someone who is unscrupulous, cunning, cynical, and unprincipled"(Goods 1998). Many scholars agree that this particular adjective would have dismayed Niccolo Machiavelli, the man from whom the term is derived. In reality he has been attributed as being one of the brightest lights of the Italian Renaissance through his works as not only a writer, but also as an influential philosopher of history and political thought. His most famous work The Prince has been misunderstood due to the motives discussed and the blatantly honest language used. Many of his critics have condemned him for his pessimistic outlook of man as a whole and in doing so try to negate the bulk of his work. Yet even after over 470 years his works are still thought provoking and influential in the political arena. This paper looks at some of the influences that may have created such a man. Machiavelli was born in Florence on May 3, 1469, a time of political upheaval and a strong political influence from the Roman Catholic Church. Although Machiavelli was never what would today be considered middle class, he himself states Ã¢â¬Å"I was born poor and learned earlier to stint myself than to prosperÃ¢â¬ (Gilbert 1961, 102). While the extent of this poverty is not known, it is known that his family owned land and was able to pay for his education. In fact, through some of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s letters we learn that he had an excellent education in Latin, arithmetic, history, and poetry, but that he was not well off enough to afford other more expensive forms of training (Gilbert 1961, 56). However, his financial hardship from earlier on seems to display itself in his cautious approach to most of his political activities. In fact, the lessons Machiavelli learned early on set a precedent of conservatism that carried on throughout his life. MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s first position in government was given to him in 1498 at the age of twenty-nine. His position was that of Second Chancellor or Secretary and was the second most important paid position in the city (Gilbert 1961, 12). This position was advantageous in the fact that it provided him with experience dealing with both international negotiations and domestic business within the city. These early experiences were evident influences in his political beliefs and he himself commented on them occasionally. It was these early lessons in ... ...61, 141) while describing to a friend his daily activities. It can be argued that this type of leisure activity may have been part of his informal training into the realm of philosophy. It was during this time that he composed some of his more famous works, but he also composed a comedy called The Mandrake that displays the less serious and rigid side of Machiavelli. Although he does show himself to be as much of a dreamer as he was a politician, Machiavelli believed knew that emotion held no place in politics. He himself stated that in order to fairly rule Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦calculation of what must be done in a given situation being unduly affected be passions or the contemporary conventions and ideals of right and wrongÃ¢â¬ (Fleisher). Through personal experiences, education, and the lessons learned from the past Machiavelli was able to influence the world for generations with his political insights and theories. Even after 470 years his works still inspire and create debate as to the true nature of politics and the behavior of those that rule. While the true contributors to the development of these beliefs may never be truly known, the impact that they have had upon the world cannot be denied.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
The net profit figure of RMB 19,011 reported under PRC GAAP was increased to RMB 21,593 under IFRS. The increase of RMB 2,582 under IFRS was due to the following reasons: Dep. and disposal of oil and gas properties RMB3,044 Acquisition of subsidiaries 443 Capitalization of general borrowing costs 389 Gain from issuance of shares by subsidiary 136 Gain from debt restructuring 82 Revaluation of land use rights 18 4,112 Unrecognized losses of subsidiaries (182) Pre-operating expenditures (169) Effect on taxation (1,179)(1,530) 2,582 The net profit figure of RMB 21,593 reported under IFRS was increased to RMB 25,577 under U.S. GAAP. The increase of RMB 3,984 under U.S. GAAP was due to the following reasons: Dep. of revalued PPE RMB 3,998 Disposal of PPE 1,316 Capitalized interest on invest.in associates 141 Reversal of deficits on revaluation of PPE 86 Foreign exchange gains and losses76 Reversal of impairment of long-lived assets 47 Exchange of assets23 Capitalization of PPE12 5,699 Deferred tax effect of U.S. GAAP adjustments (1,715) 3,984 2.The differences for CPCC between PRC GAAP and IFRS, and between IFRS and U.S. GAAP are given in the case. As mentioned in the case, treatments of the following items under PRC GAAP and IFRS are different: Depreciation and disposal of oil and gas properties Capitalization of general borrowing costs Acquisition of subsidiaries Gains from issuance of shares by a subsidiary Gains from debt restructuring Revaluation of land use rights Unrecognized losses of subsidiaries Pre-operating expenditures Impairment loses on long-lived assets Government grants (Refer pp.5-72 Ã¢â¬â 5-75 in the textbook) Treatments of depreciation and disposal of oil and gas properties seem to have a significant impact on reported profit. As mentioned in the case, treatments of the following items under IFRS and U.S. GAAP are different: Foreign exchange gains and losses Capitalization and revaluation of property, plant and equipment Exchange of assets Impairment of long-lived assets Capitalization of interest on investment in associates Goodwill amortization Companies included in consolidation Related party transactions (Refer pp.5-77 Ã¢â¬â 5-82) Treatments of depreciation of revalued property, plant and equipment, and disposal of property, plant and equipmentseem to have a significant impact on reported profit 3.U.K. readers of the financial statements may not find them very useful, as the information is not reconciled to the U.K. GAAP. There are differences between U.K. GAAP and IFRS, and between U.K. GAAP and U.S. GAAP. With the adoption of IFRS in the EU, this may not be a major problem anymore. However, UK companies use IFRS as adopted by the EU which in some cases differs from the IFRS issued by the IASB. 4.U.S. readers should find the information useful. However, it would be better for them if the information was reconciled directly from PRC GAAP to U.S. GAAP. 5.When a company is listed on a foreign stock exchange, it is always useful to explain the differences, if any, between accounting standards used inÃ preparing financial statements, and those that are stipulated by the listing requirements. The need for such explanation is reduced if the two sets of standards are comparable. However, differences can still exist due to different interpretations of the requirements. Therefore, the approach taken by CPCC can be recommended to other companies.